Purification or filtration of water is a process that is practiced to remove all the undesirable chemicals, physical contaminants, suspended solids from the raw water and make it safe for drinking. The main aim of water purification is to deliver pure water that is fit for human consumption. The water that comes from various sources is not clean for human consumption and drinking it without getting filtered would definitely lead to waterborne diseases. There are many water purification techniques that are being used for purifying the raw water and these include filtration, sedimentation as well as distillation.
Biological processes like using of slow sand filters or active carbon filters are also used to ensure that the impurities from water is removed. Chemical processes of filtration like using of flocculation and chlorination are also utilized for effective removal of impurities. In addition to these, use of electromagnetic radiation like ultraviolet light are also utilized to disinfect the micro-organisms and make the water completely pure for drinking. In all these processes, the ultimate aim is to reduce the bacteria, virus, fungi and other suspended particles and make the water free from impurities.
Water Purification Techniques Practiced Traditionally
Like eating healthy food, drinking safe and 100% pure water is also very much important for human health. Starting from the traditional days onward people used the conventional means of water treatment/purification to ensure that they drink safe water. Rural communities make use of rudimentary means of water purification techniques to serve the individual and household needs. The methodologies that are being used in this concern is to remove all the impurities and other pathogens from the water basically the large particles from the water and make it safe for drinking. There are many technologies that are be utilized to purify water, but in the initial days, low level mechanisms were applied.
The methodologies are very simple and these can remove the invisible impurities thereby making the water safe for drinking.
Also Read: How Pure Is Your Boiling Water
Traditional Methods Used for Water Filtration
- Filtration done through clay vessel: Under this purification technique, water is poured into clay vessel having a suitable pore size. The water after getting settled down into the clay vessel passes through the pores of the clay and these gets purified and collected into the jar that is placed at the bottom of the clay vessel.
- Filtration done through cloth: Talking about the water purification method, in the traditional time, filtration was also done through cloth. Here the impurities like debris, insects, dust particles and other suspended elements are also removed. A thin white cloth is used in the filtration method, where the raw water is passed through this cloth and as a result the impure water gets filtered.
- Filtration done through Winnowing Sieve: Under this process of water purification, impurities like coarse particles and other physical impurities are removed. The raw water is passed the winnowing sieve and all the impurities are filtered thereby fresh water gets collected, which is safe for drinking.
All these are some of the household procedures that are used to remove the water pollutants and make the drinking water safe to consume. In addition to these mentioned traditional water purification methods, there are other processes as well, which includes gravel filters, coconut fibre filters, two-stage filter, up-flow/down-flow water filter, jumping stone filter method and etc. These are an improvement of traditional methods that are being used by rural communities to purify the water and make it safe for drinking.
Technologically Advanced Water Purification Methods:
Today with the advancement of the technology, new equipment are introduced to purify the water and make it safe for drinking. People uses high-end water purifiers in their homes and offices to ensure that the water that they drink is 100% pure and safe. Though traditional way of purifying the water is widely used but it sounds unsafe because it do not remove bacteria, cysts, virus and you might prone to water-borne diseases. Thus, for proper water purification methods, RO or UV or UF based water purifiers are used, which will ensure that you drink almost safe and 100% pure water every time you want to.
In this concern, World Health Organization (WHO) has also reported that 1.1 billion people lack the access of proper drinking water supply. It was reported that 88% of the 4 billion annual cases are recorded in terms of diarrheal disease and the reason is drinking unsafe water. Besides, another record has also been studied that 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year and that is also due to the consumption of impure water. World Health Organization has also stated that 94% of these problems can be prevented by putting a check on supplying/drinking of impure water and allowing an access to safe water. Besides, the latest report also states that 91% of the world’s population are now receiving the improved drinking-water source and they are now free from waterborne diseases.
This is possible by practicing proper water treatment process and this is by using advanced purification methods. Some of the most used purification techniques are mentioned below:
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration Process:
Reverse osmosis (RO) is one of the water purification technologies designed with semipermeable membrane that works in removing the ions, molecules, and physical particles from the water thereby making it safe for drinking. The reverse osmosis can easily remove different types of dissolved as well as suspended particles from water and deliver safe water for both industrial processes and for domestic usage as well. The result of RO purification is that it holds the physical impurities in one side and does not allows it to pass to the other side. To be more precise, the RO membrane does not allow the large molecules to pass through the pores and deliver fresh water for drinking.
In simple sentence you can say that the RO water purification method perfectly involves in forcing the water through a semi-permeable membrane that gets filtered out easily. When you talk about RO water purification, examples of water purifier would be an added reference for your understanding. So, here are two best models of water purifier that works on reverse osmosis purification technology to make the water safe and pure to be consumed and these are mentioned below:
KENT ACE is one of the best water purifiers that is compact in design and has double purification technology in it. The model work in reverse osmosis process added with UV and UF purification stages. This is where the model brings up 100% pure water for drinking by eliminating all the impurities and dissolved particles. It has TDS controller as well, which ensures that essential minerals are retained in the purified water. The water purifier best fits for the Indian kitchen due to its excellent features and these are mentioned below:
- It is wall-mounted and counter top design
- Double purification process with TDS controller
- 7 Litres of water storing capacity
- It can purify the water coming from all the sources
- 11 Watt UV lamp to deactivate the micro-organisms
- Computer controlled operation (UV fail and Filter change alarm)
- Built-in SMPS to support the wide range of input voltage
- Body constructed with ABS plastic
Livpure Pep Star
Livpure Pep Start is another model of water purifier that has super sleek design and it works on several stages of purification process. The purification system works on RO+UV+UF and taste enhancer and delivers pure and healthy water to drink. The model removes all the contaminants and other impurities from the water thereby brining up safe water from consumption. Some of the technical attributes of this model are listed below:
- Water storing capacity: 7 Litres
- Can purify inlet water coming from all the sources
- Body material is designed with ABS plastic
- It operates at the voltage of 24 V DC
- Removes bacteria and virus to make the water safe for drinking
Know more about: What Is RO Purification
Ultrafiltration (UF) Purifying Process:
Under the range of water purification process, Ultrafiltration is one of those water purification techniques. This is a type of membrane filtration. The filter is capable of separating the impurities/substances from the water and make it safe. It is employed in order to remove the bacteria and other micro-organisms and deliver pure water for drinking. The Ultrafiltration has hollow fibres of membrane material that feeds the water flow. The water enters either inside the shell, or it passes through the membrane (depending on the construction). When water passes through the membrane all the suspended solid particulates and the impurities that are of high molecular weight gets retained. On the contrary, the pure passes through the membrane.
The UF is one of the vital water purification techniques for removing the impurities like colloids, bacteria, and macro molecules that are larger than the membrane pore size. Such filtration process is used over traditional methods where no chemical is required for purification. Besides, it can remove 90-100% of pathogens from water and make it safe for drinking. There are two best and preferred models in this genre and these are mentioned below:
KENT Gold Plus:
KENT Gold Plus is one of the prominent gravity based UF water purifier that has elegant table-top design. This fits the need of Indian homes to a great extent. It has tank-in-tank configuration and this will ensure that no water overflows the tank when raw water is poured in. It uses proper water purification techniques and is defined with superior state-of-the-art technology. The model removes all the harmful micro-organisms and other impurities easily. Some of the specifications of the models are:
- Gravity based UF water purifier
- Non-electric and chemical free purification water purification techniques
- Tank-in-tank configuration
- The model best works where the TDS level is low
- Water storage capacity of 20 litres (10 litres for raw water and 10 litres for purified water)
- Spin Welded UF membrane
- Food grade plastic construction
- Removes micro-organisms like dust, sand, bacteria and cysts
KENT Gold Optima:
The next model under this purification technology is KENT Gold Optima, which is widely preferred by the customers for excellent design and innovative technology added in it. The model best fits the need of the Indian homes as it is a gravity based UF water purifier. No electricity is needed for its operation. It uses the ultrafiltration water purification techniques that perfectly removes all the harmful micro-organisms. This will make the water safe and pure to be consumed. The best thing is that you don’t need any chemical to be used in order to purify the inlet water. Some of the specifications of this model are mentioned below:
- It is a gravity based ultrafiltration water purifier
- It can remove impurities including bacteria, cysts and other substances through proper Water Purification Techniques
- No electric or chemical is needed for purification
- Comes with water storing capacity of 10 litres (5 litres for raw water and 5 litres for purified water)
- It has hydrophilic UF membrane
- It has spin welded UF membrane
- Designed with food grade non-breakable plastic construction
Ultraviolet (UV) Purifying Process:
Ultraviolet water purification technique is one of the most effective method for purifying the water. The process disinfects the bacteria from the water and makes it perfect for drinking. Ultraviolet (UV) rays has the nature to kill the harmful pathogens from the water. This will eliminate the illness/waterborne diseases that are being caused by the micro-organisms. UV rays are perfect and even efficient enough to eliminate the ability of the micro-organisms to reproduce. The process is very much effective and environmentally safe. It destroys 99.99% of harmful microorganisms from the water and make it 100% pure and safe for consumption. During the purification process no chemicals are added and this is other added advantage of UV water purification techniques.
Some advantages of UV Purifier:
- The method is more effective against bacteria and virus
- Environment friendly and no dangerous chemical is used
- It does not changes the odour and taste of the water
- Automatic operation
- Disinfects the micro-organisms easily
Under the range of UV purification process different models introduced by many brands and the most preferred models are KENT Maxx and Aquaguard Reviva. The technical specifications of these models are mentioned below:
KENT Maxx is designed with perfection with UV technology added in it. Being the most preferred water purifier, the model is suitable for wall mounting and even can be kept as table-top. It has transparent and detachable tank, which can be easily removed for cleaning without any help of technician. The model works on best water purification techniques that is double purification process (UV and UF). This ensures that no impurities are left behind and you drink safe and pure water every time. It is a model that can also remove the dead bacteria, viruses and cysts and not allowing them to pass the fine pores of Hollow Fibre UF Membrane. This ensures that the water you drink is 100% safe and free from contaminants.
Some of the technical specifications are:
- Storing capacity of 7 litres
- Detachable storage tank
- Easy on-site cleaning
- UV and UF technology of purification
- Both wall mounting and table-top
- Suitable for low TDS water
- Computer controlled operation
- 11 watt of UV lamp that deactivates the harmful micro-organisms
- Spin-welded UF membrane
- Food grade non-breakable plastic
Eureka Forbes Aquaguard Reviva:
Eureka Forbes Aquaguard Reviva UV is another UV based water purifier that purifies raw water in an excellent manner. The model uses best water purification techniques that is perfect for the area where the water has low TDS count. The water purifier has unique e-boiling+ technology that eliminates the bacteria, virus and protozoa and allow you to stay safe from water-borne diseases. The model can remove the micro-organisms and this ensures that every drop of water you drink is pure and safe. Some of the technical specifications of the model is:
- Storage tank of 8 litres
- Table top and wall mounting installation
- 4 stages of purification process
- Removes the impurities and make the water safe
- Work in the power capacity of 16 watts
So, compared to the traditional means of water purification techniques, the modern methods are very effective. This process can remove all the impurities from water and can make the water completely safe for drinking. The best thing in this concern is that you would completely remain safe from waterborne disease. So, if you want to drink safe and 100% pure water, install a water purifier today and keep yourself healthy.